Bladder cancer is the 11th most common cancer in the UK, making up 3% of all new cancer diagnoses each year. Our understanding of this disease in younger patients is relatively scarce and contentious.
Objective: The aims of the project were to examine how younger patients present to healthcare, considering symptoms, mode of presentation and the severity of pathology at diagnosis. This data could then be compared with the variety of literature available for older patients.
Data sources: The Urology Pathology database of the North Bristol NHS Trust was searched back to 2016.
Methods: Exclusion criteria identified 43 patients suitable for the study. Patient data was collected, anonymised and statistical analysis was then used.
Results: The most common presenting symptom was visible haematuria at 81.4%. The most common mode of presentation was via the 2-Week-Wait referral system, with 67.4% of patients presenting following referral from their GP. 83.7% of patients presented with non-muscle –invasive bladder cancer.
Published: 17th June 2022
Aiman Dilnawaz – The Role of Immune Regulator IRAK-M in Myeloid Cell Activation in Light-Challenged Mouse Retina
Oxidative stress is one of the pathogenic factors involved in the mediation of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and is associated with immune cells infiltrating to subretinal space and changes in the retinal pigmented epithelium, i.e. autophagy impairment. Retinal inflammation perturbs homeostatic para-inflammatory response via release of certain cytokines and chemokines. IRAK-M is recognised as one of the intracellular regulators responsible for negatively regulating inflammatory responses.
Methods: Genetically altered IRAK-M knock out (KO) mice and wild type (WT) C57BL/6J mice aged 8-10 weeks were subjected to fundus camera-delivered light-induction for retinal degeneration. 3-days post light induction, eyes were enucleated and cryosections prepared for fluorescent staining of CD11b+ cells.
Results: IRAK-M KO-mice with light-induction show increased number of CD11b+ cells in comparison to WT-mice with light-induction. In KO-mice, light induced infiltration of CD11b+ myeloid cells were largely seen in subretinal space but not in WT-mice.
Conclusion: IRAK-M deficient mice’s retina is susceptible to light-induced CD11b+ cell infiltration and particularly accumulation within the subretinal space. The data suggest a role of IRAK-M in regulating myeloid cell-mediated tissue inflammation under oxidative stress.